Plurilateral agreements refer to trade agreements between a few select countries rather than all members of a trade organization. These agreements differ from multilateral agreements, which are between all members of a trade organization.

Plurilateral agreements have become increasingly popular in recent years as a way for countries to negotiate specific trade deals that benefit their respective industries. These agreements also allow countries to bypass any roadblocks that may arise in multilateral trade negotiations.

One of the most notable plurilateral agreements is the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which includes 12 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The TPP was created to lower trade barriers and promote economic growth among its member countries. However, the agreement faced criticism and opposition, ultimately leading to the United States withdrawing from the TPP in 2017.

Another example of plurilateral agreements is the Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA), which includes 23 countries and aims to lower barriers to trade in the services sector. TiSA negotiations began in 2013, but the agreement has yet to be implemented due to opposition from various groups.

Plurilateral agreements can offer various benefits, including increased market access for participating countries and the promotion of economic growth. However, they are not without their challenges. These agreements can face opposition from non-participating countries or groups that may not benefit from the deal.

In addition, plurilateral agreements can also face challenges in terms of ensuring that the terms of the agreement are fair and beneficial to all participating countries.

Overall, plurilateral agreements continue to play a significant role in global trade negotiations. As countries continue to navigate the complex world of international trade, it is likely that we will see more plurilateral agreements in the future.